Secure Sockets Layer is the procedure of performing data communication between two points via an encrypted channel. Its most popular area of use is encryption of communication between the relevant server and browser during data communication at websites. These certificates are not responsible for ensuring security of the codes and websites.
SSL algorithm is a standard one. These certificates may vary depending on the guarantee and additional services provided for the customer. However, technical added value provided by certificates is essentially the same.
Its operating logic is based on an encryption in which keys called as SSL Public Key/Private Key are used. Two keys are required for SSL encryption. These two keys actually are made of coded software. Data encrypted by a key can only be decrypted by the other key. The private key is kept by you and public key is provided for the persons to establish communication.
The person establishing communication safely transmits the message to you by using the public key assigned to him/her and even if data communication is hijacked by the man-in-the-middle, he shall not own it due to lack of private key to decrypt this data. SSL certificates use encryption algorithms such as 40-bit, 128-bit, 256-bit and 1024-bit. Decoding data encrypted with such algorithms shall take years by investment of millions under normal conditions. Here, the purpose is the data sent via SSL shall only be decrypted and used at the right address and thus confidentiality and integrity of the process and data is ensured.